1.
After the horror of 9/11, many people said the CIA and FBI should obviously have foreseen the likelihood of this form of terrorism. This perception most clearly illustrates:
A.
the false consensus effect.
B.
the hindsight bias.
C.
random sampling.
D.
the placebo effect.


2.
When Leanne heard about experimental evidence that orange juice consumption triggers hyperactivity in children, she questioned whether the tested children had been randomly assigned to experimental conditions. Leanne's reaction best illustrates:
A.
illusory correlation.
B.
an illusion of control.
C.
the hindsight bias.
D.
critical thinking.
E.
overconfidence.


3.
Stacey suggests that because children are more impulsive than adults, they will have more difficulty controlling their anger. Stacey's prediction regarding anger management exemplifies:
A.
an hypothesis.
B.
the hindsight bias.
C.
illusory correlation.
D.
the false consensus effect.


4.
Which research technique is most directly useful for avoiding the thinking error known as the false consensus effect?
A.
operational definition
B.
double-blind procedure
C.
random sampling
D.
experimental control
E.
case study


5.
Professor Carter observes and records the behavior of grocery shoppers as they select items to purchase. Which type of research is Professor Carter employing?
A.
survey research
B.
case study
C.
experimentation
D.
naturalistic observation


6.
A negative correlation between people's physical health and their marital happiness would indicate that:
A.
poor physical health has a negative impact on marital happiness.
B.
marital unhappiness promotes poor health.
C.
higher levels of marital happiness are associated with lower levels of physical health.
D.
marital happiness has no causal influence on physical health.


7.
Mr. Brown has gathered evidence that the weight of grade school students correlates positively with their reading skill. Before he uses this evidence to conclude that body weight enhances reading ability, Mr. Brown should first be reminded that:
A.
events often seem more probable in hindsight.
B.
random sequences of events often don't look random.
C.
sampling extreme cases leads to false generalizations.
D.
we often exaggerate the extent to which others share our opinions.
E.
correlation does not prove causation.


8.
Which method offers the most reliable way of assessing whether athletic performance is boosted by caffeine consumption?
A.
the survey
B.
the case study
C.
the experiment
D.
naturalistic observation


9.
In drug-treatment studies, double-blind procedures minimize outcome differences between experimental and control conditions that could be attributed to:
A.
replication.
B.
random assignment.
C.
operational definitions.
D.
random sampling.
E.
placebo effects.


10.
In an experimental study of the extent to which mental alertness is inhibited by sleep deprivation, alertness would be the:
A.
control condition.
B.
independent variable.
C.
experimental condition.
D.
dependent variable.


11.
In order to assess whether sense of humor is affected by sexual stimulation, researchers exposed married couples to either sexually stimulating or to sexually nonstimulating movie scenes prior to watching a comedy skit. In this research, the independent variable consisted of:
A.
reactions to the comedy skit.
B.
level of sexual stimulation.
C.
marital status.
D.
sense of humor.


12.
One person in a ten-person group is ten times older than any of the other members. With respect to age, it is most likely that the majority of group members are younger than the group's:
A.
mode.
B.
median.
C.
mean.
D.
standard deviation.


13.
The ________ is a measure of ________.
A.
standard deviation; central tendency
B.
mean; variation
C.
correlation coefficient; central tendency
D.
mode; variation
E.
median; central tendency


14.
Janet has five brothers who are 4, 6, 6, 9, and 15 years of age. The mean age of Janet's brothers is:
A.
5.
B.
6.
C.
7.
D.
8.
E.
9


15.
Random samples provide ________ estimates of population averages if the samples have small ________.
A.
good; means
B.
good; standard deviations
C.
poor; means
D.
poor; standard deviations




STOP This is the end of the test. When you have completed all the questions and reviewed your answers, press the button below to grade the test.